|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 209-212
Applicability of Bolton's analysis: A study on tibetan community
KK Sajal1, Rishabh Gupta2, Vikram Pai3, Pooja Desai3, Sudhir K Mishra1, Jagadish Hosamani4
1 Department of Orthodontics, Maratha Mandal's Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Center, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Sehora, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||26-Dec-2018|
Dr. Vikram Pai
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, R.S. No: 47A/2, Bauxite Road, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the anterior and overall ratios of Tibetan population residing at Mundgod and to compare the obtained ratios to the ratios available from Bolton's study. Materials and Methods: The study consists of randomly selected 120 samples of Tibetan population ranging in age from 15 to 25 years, residing at Mundgod, Karnataka (60 males and 60 females). After measuring the width of each tooth, overall and anterior ratios were measured using formula proposed by Bolton. Statistical Analysis: Anterior and overall tooth ratios obtained from the study were compared to standard Bolton's ratio by one-sample t-test. The differences between males and females were compared by independent samples t-test. Results: The overall ratio was significantly lower for both males (P = 0.03) and females (P = 0.001) at 90.20 and 88.93, respectively, when compared to the Bolton's value of 91.3, whereas anterior ratio for males (P = 0.001) was significantly higher at 77.9 when compared to Bolton's value of 77.2. The combined values of males and females when compared to Bolton's value, i.e., the combined overall ratio (P = 0.001) was significantly lower at 89.5 and the combined anterior ratio (P = 0.016) was significantly higher at 78.7. Conclusion: In the present study, significant difference was observed between the overall and anterior ratios in Tibetan population as compared to the Bolton's value. Therefore, Bolton's original data cannot be applied for Tibetan population.
Keywords: Bolton's ratio, interarch discrepancy, Tibetan
|How to cite this article:|
Sajal K K, Gupta R, Pai V, Desai P, Mishra SK, Hosamani J. Applicability of Bolton's analysis: A study on tibetan community. APOS Trends Orthod 2018;8:209-12
| Introduction|| |
The intermaxillary tooth size ratio plays a pivotal role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. A discrepancy in this ratio can dictate treatment plan as to whether extractions are required or reproximation could be sufficient. It could also suggest whether to include compensating esthetic procedures such as composite bonding, prosthetic reconstructing, or crown recontouring. Acceptable intermaxillary tooth size ratio is a key to establish ideal interdigitation, overjet, and overbite at completion of orthodontic treatment.,,
Initial investigations on tooth size were given by Black and Neff. A classic work and most popular method for determining tooth size abnormality was given by Bolton,, who quantified the maxillary-to-mandibular tooth size and gave his overall and anterior ratios based on 55 patients with excellent Class I occlusion.
Although Bolton's analysis is extremely useful in clinical settings and provides insight into functional and esthetic outcomes of a case, obliterating the need for a diagnostic setup, it has certain limitations, first the size of the tooth is believed to be determined by genetic factors., As Bolton's study included only cases with excellent occlusion that were treated orthodontically without extractions, its applicability in different malocclusions was questionable. Furthermore, the gender composition of Bolton's study was not specified. Factors such as ethnic background also affect the tooth sizes.
Yonezu et al. showed that differences in tooth size have been associated with different ethnic backgrounds. Literature is replete with studies comparing tooth size discrepancy and malocclusion in different ethnic groups, but very few odontometric norms are available for many of the oriental populations. Only one such study was available for Tibetan population which was done by Karanth and Jayade but with the limitation of a smaller sample size consisting of thirty patients. Hence, the purpose of this study was to establish norms for Tibetans residing at Mundgod using a large sample size.
When Tibet became an autonomous region of China in 1959, a large number of Tibetans migrated to India and numerous resettlement colonies were formed for them across various parts of the country. Mundgod is one among them which is located 65 km southeast of Dharwad, Karnataka.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was:
- To evaluate the anterior and overall ratios of Tibetan population residing at Mundgod
- To compare the obtained anterior and overall ratios between males and females of the same population
- To compare both anterior and overall tooth size ratios of Tibetan population to the ratios available from Bolton's study.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study consisted of randomly selected 120 samples of Tibetan population ranging in age from 15 to 25 years residing at Mundgod, Karnataka (60 males and 60 females). The study models were prepared after making alginate impression of maxillary and mandibular arches and pouring them immediately with dental stone.
- All the permanent teeth present in each quadrant from central incisor to first molar
- Good quality study casts
- Absences of any decay, interproximal restoration, attrition, abrasion, and erosion
- Absence of any fractured tooth, abnormality affecting the shape, and position of tooth
- No previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment.
A digital caliper [Figure 1] (Aerospace, Delhi) with a resolution of 0.2 mm/0.0005”, accuracy of 0.02 mm/0.001”, and repeatability of 0.01 mm/0.0005” was used to measure the mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth. The width of each tooth was measured from the mesial contact point to distal contact point at its greatest interproximal distance.
A single investigator measured each tooth twice, from the right first molar to the left first molar in each arch [Figure 2]. If the difference was <0.2 mm, the first measurement was taken. If the second measurement differed by >0.2 mm from the first, the tooth was measured again and only new measurement was registered. Only ten pairs of models were measured each day to prevent visual fatigue.
|Figure 2: Measurements on the mesiodistal width of the tooth on the dental cast|
Click here to view
Bolton's anterior (canine to canine) and overall ( first molar to first molar) ratios were calculated with the following formula:
(Sum of mandibular 12/sum of maxillary 12) × 100 = overall ratio (%)
(Sum of mandibular 6/sum of maxillary 6) × 100 = anterior ratio (%)
The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows, Version 10.0., SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Anterior and overall tooth ratios obtained from the study were compared to standard Bolton's ratio by one-sample t-test. The differences between males and females were compared by independent samples t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all the comparisons.
| Results|| |
[Table 1] shows the gender comparison of anterior and overall ratios of Tibetan population. Even though both the values were slightly more in males than in females, no significant difference was observed between them. [Figure 3] shows the graphical comparison of the same result.
|Table 1: Comparison of anterior and overall ratios between males and females|
Click here to view
[Table 2] & [Figure 4] shows the comparison of anterior and overall ratios of males and females separately with that of Bolton's standard ratios. The males (P = 0.03) as well as females (P = 0.001) in the study population had significantly lower overall ratio compared to that of Bolton's values. The males in the study population had significantly higher (P = 0.001) anterior ratio compared to Bolton's values. However, for females, there was no significant difference (P = 0.70) between the study population and Bolton's values.
|Table 2: Comparison of anterior and overall ratios of males and females separately with that of Bolton's standard ratios|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Overall and anterior ratios of males and females of study group compared to the Bolton's values|
Click here to view
As there was no significant difference observed in both males and females, the mean value was taken to represent the whole sample. [Table 3] & [Figure 5] shows the comparison of anterior and overall ratios of Tibetan population with the values obtained from Bolton's study. Overall ratio of Tibetan population showed significantly lower values, i.e., 89.59 (P = 0.001) when compared to standard Bolton's values (91.30). Anterior ratio of Tibetan population showed significantly higher value, i.e., 78.73 (P = 0.016) when compared to standard Bolton's values (77.20).
|Table 3: Comparison of anterior and overall ratios of Tibetan population with Bolton's values|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Overall and anterior ratios of study group compared to the Bolton's values|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Among the various diagnostics tools used, Bolton's tooth size analysis is the most common and reliable method for detecting interarch discrepancy. Bolton's analysis is critically important and should be taken into consideration in order to achieve perfect occlusion with optimal overjet and overbite. Various studies, have suggested that Bolton's ratio cannot be universally applied across the populations due to ethnic and gender variations. In addition, Bolton's ratio can differ in patients with different malocclusions.
As the mesiodistal diameter of the tooth is susceptible to dimensional changes due to attrition and interproximal caries, here, we selected a young group of students residing in a hostel of higher secondary school to minimize these variations associated with mesiodistal crown dimension.
The original Bolton's norms were calculated using 55 models with excellent occlusion, of which 44 were orthodontically treated., Bolton's estimates of variation were underestimated because his samples were derived from perfect Class I occlusion. In our study, we derived Bolton's ratio using randomly selected 120 samples of different malocclusion residing in a hostel of higher secondary school. The findings of our study were in conjunction with that of Crosby and Alexander and Araujo and Souki, where the mean anterior tooth size ratios exhibited no statistically significant difference among the different malocclusion groups.
In our study, the anterior and overall ratios were compared between two genders and it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference in either of them. This could be attributed to similar distribution of the mesiodistal width of teeth in males and females. This was similar to the studies done by Ta et al. in Southern Chinese population. Alam et al. in different malocclusions also concluded that there is no gender difference in the anterior and overall ratios. Richardson and Malhotra reported no differences in upper and lower anterior tooth size ratios; there is a constant 77% ratio for both genders.
As there was no significant difference in anterior and overall ratios between two genders, the ratios were obtained for the sample as a whole. The ratios were then compared with the ratio derived from Bolton's study. The overall ratio of the Tibetan population was significantly lower than the Bolton's value, whereas the anterior ratio was significantly higher than the Bolton's value. Karanth and Jayade also conducted studies in the same population with a sample size of 30 to determine norms for various model analyses. According to them, no significant differences were seen in both anterior and overall ratios, but the range and standard deviation were larger for both the ratios. This could be due to the small sample size selection with normal occlusion. Studies conducted by Jaiswal and Paudel in Nepalese population and Subbarao et al. in Indian population revealed significantly higher values for both anterior and overall ratios upon comparison with Bolton's standard values.
Numerous factors such as heredity, growth of the bone, eruption and inclination of the teeth, external influences, function, and ethnic background probably affect the size and shape of the dental arches and could be responsible factors contributing to difference in the interarch ratio. In this study, the evaluations from the Tibetan sample are quite discrete to Bolton's original data from the American population. The mean overall and anterior ratios of Tibetan and Bolton's sample were incompatible, indicating that the Bolton analysis for Caucasian samples cannot be applied in general to the Tibetan population.
| Conclusion|| |
- Significant differences were observed for the overall and anterior ratios as compared to Bolton's ratio
- There was no statistically significant difference in overall ratio and anterior ratios observed between males and females
- Hence, Bolton's original data cannot be applied for Tibetan population.
In summary, the results of this study showed some significant changes from values obtained from Bolton's study. Our study indicated that population-specific standards are necessary for clinical assessment.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Othman SA, Harradine NW. Tooth-size discrepancy and Bolton's ratios: A literature review. J Orthod 2006;33:45-51.
Santoro M, Ayoub ME, Pardi VA, Cangialosi TJ. Mesiodistal crown dimensions and tooth size discrepancy of the permanent dentition of Dominican Americans. Angle Orthod 2000;70:303-7.
Al-Tamimi T, Hashim HA. Bolton tooth-size ratio revisited. World J Orthod 2005;6:289-95.
Black GV. Descriptive Anatomy of the Human Teeth. 4th
ed. Philadelphia, PA: S.S. White Dental Mfg. Co.; 1902.
Neff CW. Tailored occlusion with the anterior coefficient. Am J Orthod 1949;35:309-13.
Bolton WA. Disharmony in tooth size and its relation to the analysis and treatment of malocclusion. Angle Orthod 1958;28:113-30.
Bolton WA. The clinical application of tooth-size analysis. Am J Orthod 1962;48:504-29.
Alam MK, Hossain MR, Islam MA. Reliability of Bolton tooth size discrepancies in Bangladeshi population. Int Med J 2013:20:229-31.
Dempsey PJ, Townsend GC. Genetic and environmental contributions to variation in human tooth size. Heredity (Edinb) 2001;86:685-93.
Hughes T, Dempsey P, Richards L, Townsend G. Genetic analysis of deciduous tooth size in Australian twins. Arch Oral Biol 2000;45:997-1004.
Trehan M, Agarwal S, Sharma S. Applicability of Bolton's analysis: A Study on Jaipur population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5:113-7.
Yonezu T, Warren JJ, Bishara SE, Steinbock KL. Comparison of tooth size and dental arch widths in contemporary Japanese and American preschool Children. World J Orthod 2001;2:356-60.
Araujo E, Souki M. Bolton anterior tooth size discrepancies among different malocclusion groups. Angle Orthod 2003;73:307-13.
Karanth HS, Jayade VP. An odontometric study of a Tibetan population. Aust Orthod J 1998;15:93-100.
Bernabé E, Major PW, Flores-Mir C. Tooth-width ratio discrepancies in a sample of Peruvian adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;125:361-5.
Wedrychowska-Szulc B, Janiszewska-Olszowska J, Stepień P. Overall and anterior Bolton ratio in Class I, II, and III orthodontic patients. Eur J Orthod 2010;32:313-8.
Crosby DR, Alexander CG. The occurrence of tooth size discrepancies among different malocclusion groups. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;95:457-61.
Ta TA, Ling JY, Hägg U. Tooth-size discrepancies among different occlusion groups of Southern Chinese children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;120:556-8.
Richardson ER, Malhotra SK. Mesiodistal crown dimension of the permanent dentition of American Negroes. Am J Orthod 1975;68:157-64.
Jaiswal AK, Paudel KR. Applicability of Bolton's tooth size ratio for Nepalese population. Nepal Dent Assoc 2009;10:84-7.
Subbarao VV, Regalla RR, Santi V, Anita G, Kattimani VS. Interarch tooth size relationship of Indian population: Does Bolton's analysis apply? J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15:103-7.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]